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By B. Haynes B.SC. DIP.ED. F.R.I.C. (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0333093763

ISBN-13: 9780333093764

ISBN-10: 1349006211

ISBN-13: 9781349006212

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Derivatives. See page 133. ETHERS All common ethers are sparingly soluble in water. They dissolve in concentrated sulphuric acid (cooled in an ice-bath) but are regenerated when the solution is poured into water, except for some aromatic ethers which may be partially sulphonated and so may be incompletely recovered. Many ethers possess strong odours; those of simple aromatic ethers such as anisole are sometimes confused with the odours of the simple aromatic hydrocarbons. Ethers, like hydrocarbons, are somewhat unreactive substances.

Nitro-, nitroso-, azoxy-, azo-, and hydrazo-compounds. VI. Compounds containing halogen (but not nitrogen or sulphur). ) VII. Compounds containing nitrogen and halogen (but not sulphur). ) VIII. Compounds containing sulphur (with or without nitrogen and/or halogen). Ammonium salts of simple and substituted sulphonic acids. Sulphonic acids and their metallic salts; sulphonamides. Amino-sulphonic acids. Sulphates of bases. Thiourea, substituted thioureas, thioamides. Sulphonyl halides. N-Halogeno-sulphonamides.

Fading of the pink colour in the test solution compared with the blank, indicates the presence of an ester, lactone or anhydride. ) Note. Readily hydrolysable esters such as those derived from low molecular weight aliphatic alcohols and formic and oxalic acids give instant decolourization in test (b), and so might be mistaken for carboxylic acids. However, the esters will give test (a) while carboxylic acids do not. Test for anhydrides. Dissolve a little of the substance in the minimum of benzene or chloroform and add a small amount of aniline.

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Qualitative Organic Analysis by B. Haynes B.SC. DIP.ED. F.R.I.C. (auth.)

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