By David Faust, Margaret A. Ackley (auth.), Cecil R. Reynolds (eds.)
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Additional info for Detection of Malingering during Head Injury Litigation
Given the number of malingering indicators we now have that have been supported through research, it would be helpful to examine indicators that have not been studied adequately (or at all) but that still seem to be used frequently in clinical practice. Frequency of use could easily be identified through surveys. Examining these indicators might add to the pool of validated methods, but as importantly, if not more so. it will help us to identify variables that appear to be valid but are n~t. Again, when other valid methods are available, failing to include one more valid predictor is usually not nearly so bad a mistake as inadvertently adding an invalid variable.
There is at least one way researchers should be able to determine the lower limits of base rates. If one applies a measure with a very high true-positive rate, or measures on which positive results offer something close to prima facie evidence of malingering (at least on that task), then the obtained rate of positive identifications should provide a good estimate of minimum frequencies. For example, suppose performances that are well below chance on a forced-choice procedure could be taken as strong evidence for malingering.
Dawes and Meehl (1966) described methods and conditions under which validation work can proceed even when groups are far from pure. The problem with distortion or alteration of qualitative features is a very difficult one. We can suggest some strategies that might be helpful, and we again feel confident that others can add to this list. One way to examine generalization across subjects in research and applied settings is to test promising new methods against the results of procedures that have already been shown to have at least a modicum of validity in applied settings, a type of concurrent validation strategy.
Detection of Malingering during Head Injury Litigation by David Faust, Margaret A. Ackley (auth.), Cecil R. Reynolds (eds.)