By Amir D. Aczel
René Descartes (1596–1650) is without doubt one of the towering and primary figures in Western philosophy and arithmetic. His apothegm “Cogito, ergo sum” marked the beginning of the mind-body challenge, whereas his production of so-called Cartesian coordinates have made our actual and highbrow conquest of actual area possible.
But Descartes had a mysterious and mystical facet, to boot. potentially a member of the occult brotherhood of the Rosicrucians, he stored a mystery workstation, now misplaced, so much of which used to be written in code. After Descartes’s loss of life, Gottfried Leibniz, inventor of calculus and one of many maximum mathematicians in background, moved to Paris looking for this notebook—and ultimately chanced on it within the ownership of Claude Clerselier, a chum of Descartes. Leibniz known as on Clerselier and was once allowed to repeat just a couple of pages—which, notwithstanding written in code, he amazingly deciphered there immediate. Leibniz’s rapidly scribbled notes are all now we have this present day of Descartes’s pc, which has disappeared.
Why did Descartes continue a mystery workstation, and what have been its contents? The solutions to those questions lead Amir Aczel and the reader on an exhilarating, swashbuckling trip, and provide a desirable examine one of many nice figures of Western tradition.
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Extra resources for Descartes's Secret Notebook: A True Tale of Mathematics, Mysticism, and the Quest to Understand the Universe
A lower green density ( 49% dth at 250 MPa ) was observed for monosized spherical particles in powder C (5)compared to powder A. '\ . '- . ~... '';','1\:". ":' . , " ' '' . . 1'. ". ' - . ; .. ~ ~ . 4:J/r •. ,,,"'J . ' '. ~ . ~ .. :," ~. ,. 'ot. • _ l . t. , "~J'O'. •• .. I "<-:lI ', " , . ) Fig 2: Compaction behaviour Powder A c: (J) of Zr02-Y203 Powders 3,0 2,8 - 2,6 2,4 10 1 PowderC PowderS a' • 10 2 10 3 Compaction pressure MPa Powder characteristics will also affect the transmission of stresses during powder compaction.
Kimura, 2nd Int. Conr. Powder Processing. Berchtesgaden, FRA, 1988. 22- Fabrication Principles for the Production of Ceramics with Superior Mechanical Properties, R. J. Brook, Proc. Brit. Ceram. -Sec. 7-24. 1982. ROTHMAN CRICERAM, Division CERALTECH, PECHINEY Group, France ABSTRACT Sintering behavior of Yttria stabilized ZIRCONIA (SYGMA+3YTM) was examined for chemically synthesized powders produced by CRICERAM's sublimation hydrolysis method. Results were ,obtained for different surface areas : from 6 to 40 m2 These studies indicated densification at a relatively low temperature « 1500°C) with good mechanical properties.
The grains increase in diameter at the higher temperature and longer calcination times. Note also the appearance of void-space, which basically gives rise to porosity and the less than theoretical densities measured typically for ceramics. lm). This can only be imposed by the application of elevated temperatures and pressures and/or repea'ted grinding and sintering. Clearly, the observational technique depicted here (at magnifications in the range 20-100,000 X) has the potential to provide a routine analysis in view of understanding details of the mechanism and progress of sintering in individual cases.
Descartes's Secret Notebook: A True Tale of Mathematics, Mysticism, and the Quest to Understand the Universe by Amir D. Aczel