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By M. J. Frissel

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As an example of such a system nutrient cycling data are given for a hill farm unit operated by the Hill Farming Research Organisation from 1954 to 1968. The system consisted of a 280-hectare unit which contained 90 hectares of dominantly Agrostis--Festuca grassland and 190 hectares of Nardus and Molinia dominated grass heath. 6 lambs per 100 ewes. After 1968 the system was intensified and a description of that system follows in the next section. 2b. Improved hill sheep farming Classification. Extensive livestock system.

B y d r o p p i n g s on g r a z e d areas . . . . application of manure ............ a p p l i c a t i o n o f litter, s l u d g e a n d w a s t e . b y i m m o b i l i z a t i o n in soil o r g a n i c f r a c t i o n by p l a n t p r o d u c t s r e m a i n i n g on field . TOTAL T r a n s f e r b y m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o f soil o r g a n i c f r a c t i o n O u t p u t by o r g a n i c m a t t e r , r e m o v e d b y r u n - o f f . TOTAL SUPPLIES-REMOVALS 4+ -m P31 + 35 1? 14 15 +20 C h a n g e s in a m o u n t o f soil m i n e r a l s SUPPLY: REMOVAL: 24.

2. 3. 4. Input by litter used indoors .............. Transfer by consumption of harvested crops Transfer by grazing of forage ............. TOTAL 5. 6. Output by animal products ............... O u t p u t b y losses f r o m m a n u r e t o air, b e f o r e application ...... Output by manure .................... Transfer by application of manure and/or waste . T r a n s f e r b y d r o p p i n g s o n g r a z e d areas . . . . TOTAL 7. 8. 9. 2** --18 + 20 . . 8 0 1"* ---(10) 11 0 0 Changes in a m o u n t o f t o t a l soil c o m p o n e n t SUPPLIES: REMOVALS: 8.

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Cycling of Mineral Nutrients in Agricultural Ecosystems by M. J. Frissel


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