By Michael J. Apter, and G. A. Kerkut (Auth.)
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Additional resources for Cybernetics and Development
Thus the most convenient form of an effective model would be in terms of simulated cellular instructions. Spiegelmann has noted that most work so far on differentiation has been at the level of interactions between tissues but that ". . it is ultimately essential to extend our understanding to the nature of the processes involved at the cellular 46 level". < > Of course it must not be forgotten that single-celled animals can also grow and develop and maintain a particular shape, and therefore development can be determined by sub-cellular factors also.
Investigations of this type may furnish evidence that the system of axioms used is convenient and, at least in its effects, similar to reality. They are, however, not the ideal method, to determine the validity of the axioms. Such determinations of validity belong primarily to the first part of the problem. Indeed they are essentially covered by the properly physiological (or chemical or physicalchemical) determinations of the nature and properties of the elements. . * ) Cybernetics is anti-Baconian in attitude and this is another way of saying that it considers science to be seeking explanations rather than descriptions, and believes that descriptions themselves will not naturally lead to explanations without deliberate conceptual effort.
He further distinguishes Histogenesis and Régionalisation by stating that the latter shows a difference between two spatially distinct but contemporaneous entities while the former shows a difference between two temporal states of the same entity. It is not completely clear just what Waddington means by "Pattern Formation", and indeed in practice he rarely uses the term. However, we believe that it can usefully be used to refer to the spatial organisation of the whole organism. In this sense we can then distinguish between two kinds of pattern formation.
Cybernetics and Development by Michael J. Apter, and G. A. Kerkut (Auth.)