By Hideaki Senzaki, Satoshi Yasukochi
This ebook comprehensively covers the most recent information regarding ventricular–vascular morphology and serve as in congenital middle sickness (CHD) assessed by way of a number of cutting edge methodologies.
Anatomical (morphological) abnormalities in CHD are often followed with irregular loading stipulations, which, in flip, reason ventricular and vascular practical impairments. The sensible impairments can also exist independently of the anatomical abnormalities. those (morphological and practical abnormalities) importantly engage to figure out underlying pathophysiology and generate scientific signs in CHD. hence, unique and designated review of morphology and serve as is vital to raised comprehend and deal with this disorder. contemporary advances in expertise have supplied worthy instruments for this objective, and novel findings are gathering. the data contained the following will offer researchers and clinicians with worthy wisdom during this field.
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Additional resources for Congenital Heart Disease: Morphological and Functional Assessment
3 Step 2: Determining the Ventricle Loop: Ventricle The ventricular loop or ventricular situs may tend rightward (dextro-loop; hereafter, d-loop) (–, D, –) or leftward (levo-loop; hereafter, l-loop) (–, L, –). The cardiac structures are identiﬁable on the basis of their speciﬁc morphological features [10–12]. The shape of the right ventricle (RV) is usually triangular and crescent, while that of the left ventricle (LV) is a bullet shape. The morphological characteristics of the RV are the presence of an apical moderator band and the subvalvular conus, which is a muscle that demarcated the tricuspid and pulmonary valve (no ﬁbrous continuity of tricuspid-pulmonary junction).
The EROA is then measured by manual planimetry of the color Doppler jet signal. This method is reportedly accurate and the regurgitant volume can be estimated as the vena contracta area multiplied by the velocity time integral of the regurgitant jet on the continuouswave Doppler . However, the low temporal resolution of color Doppler 3DE due to the slow volume rate is a limitation of current 3DE systems. Conclusion 3DE offers new insights into AVV anatomy and function. An en face view of the AVV from the atrial side created by 3DE approximates the surgeon’s view, making it easier for echocardiologists to communicate the anatomy and pathology of the AVV to surgeons prior to the operation.
However, in complex cases, it may be difﬁcult to determine which ventricle is the morphological right ventricle and which is the morphological left ventricle. In such cases, the identiﬁcation may be based on the assumption that in the presence of a right-sided aortic 52 Fig. 7 The morphology of the right ventricle Fig. 8 The morphology of the left ventricle S. Yasukochi 3 Assessment of Intracardiac Anatomy by Magnetic Resonance Imaging 53 Fig. 9 Overall morphology of pulmonic RV and systemic RV valve, the right ventricle is located to the right of the left ventricle (d-loop), and in the presence of a left-sided aortic valve, the right ventricle is located to the left of the left ventricle (l-loop).
Congenital Heart Disease: Morphological and Functional Assessment by Hideaki Senzaki, Satoshi Yasukochi