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Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, by Piero Gleijeses PDF

It is a compelling and dramatic account of Cuban coverage in Africa from 1959 to 1976 and of its escalating conflict with U. S. coverage towards the continent. Piero Gleijeses's fast paced narrative takes the reader from Cuba's first steps to help Algerian rebels battling France in 1961, to the key struggle among Havana and Washington in Zaire in 1964-65--where a hundred Cubans led by way of Che Guevara clashed with 1,000 mercenaries managed via the CIA--and, eventually, to the dramatic dispatch of 30,000 Cubans to Angola in 1975-76, which stopped the South African develop on Luanda and doomed Henry Kissinger's significant covert operation there.

Extra resources for Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976

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Four days later, Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles. He did not consult Castro. ‘‘We realized that we had become some type of game token,’’ Castro later said. He had expressed his feelings equally bluntly at the time: ‘‘I do not see how you can say that we were consulted in the decision you took,’’ he wrote Khrushchev. ’’≥∞ While the point is true, it must be qualified. Kennedy had hedged his pledge with conditions that the Cubans rejected. Castro had refused to allow on-site UN supervision of the missiles’ removal or any future on-ground verification that no missiles had been installed, and Kennedy had consequently rebuffed Khrushchev’s repeated requests to sign a document formalizing the noninvasion pledge.

Kennedy had hedged his pledge with conditions that the Cubans rejected. Castro had refused to allow on-site UN supervision of the missiles’ removal or any future on-ground verification that no missiles had been installed, and Kennedy had consequently rebuffed Khrushchev’s repeated requests to sign a document formalizing the noninvasion pledge. At his November 20 press conference Kennedy gave himself more wiggle room. S. noninvasion guarantee had not been met, he said, ‘‘If all offensive weapons are removed from Cuba and kept out of the hemisphere in the future .

S. aid. ’ ’’∏Ω It is impossible to know what Castro’s intentions were because the United States consistently rebuffed his overtures. A modus vivendi with the United States would have lowered his international profile and curtailed his activism. It would have run counter to his sense of mission and his deep hostility to the United States. It would have satisfied, however, a deep longing. Tad Szulc, Castro’s foremost biographer, stresses ‘‘the obsession of Fidel Castro to do away with human, social and economic underdevelopment in Cuba.

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Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976 by Piero Gleijeses


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