By S.C. Jain, M. Willander and V. Kumar (Eds.)
Engaging in polymers have been chanced on in Nineteen Seventies in Japan. considering this discovery, there was a gentle stream of recent rules, new figuring out, new conducing polymer (organics) buildings and units with more desirable functionality. numerous breakthroughs were made within the layout and fabrication know-how of the natural units. just about all houses, mechanical, electric, and optical, are vital in organics. This booklet describes the hot advances in those natural fabrics and units
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Additional info for Conducting Organic Materials and Devices
52) to a good approximation. This equation predicts that analytically calculated plots of ln J –1/T are Arrhenius straight lines. However the activation energy determined from the slopes of these lines are not the activation energy Et but the energy multiplied by a factor γ , qHb d 2 , 2 0V = γ Et . 54) The activation energy observed experimentally is the effective activation energy and is a function of applied voltage V and trap density Hb . Several interesting features predicted by this equation are given below.
Kao and Hwang  have derived an expression for J (V ) in a polymer with uniformly distributed traps. 2. 23) Optical and Transport Properties 33 where Ha is the trap density and δ is the Dirac delta function. We first consider the shallow traps lying between the Fermi level and the valence band edge (we are considering conduction by holes). The concentration of holes in the traps is given by , Eu pt = Ha δ(E − Et ) El 1 1 + exp EF −E kT dE. 24) Energies El and Eu are the lower and upper limits of the trapping level.
Fig. 12 shows that for a given P (0) the constant C increases with current density. The field distribution and charge carrier distribution along the direction of current flow are important quantities. Their calculated values are plotted in Figs. 14. As P (0) decreases (or C increases) both the field and charge carrier densities tend to become uniform. When the field and charge densities become uniform one would expect the ohmic relationship between current and voltage. This is consistent with the result derived earlier in Eq.
Conducting Organic Materials and Devices by S.C. Jain, M. Willander and V. Kumar (Eds.)