By Ann M. Carlos
Commerce through a Frozen Sea is a cross-cultural learn of a century of touch among North American local peoples and Europeans. throughout the eighteenth century, the natives of the Hudson Bay lowlands and their ecu buying and selling companions have been introduced jointly through an more and more well known exchange in furs, destined for the hat and fur markets of Europe. local american citizens have been the only trappers of furs, which they traded to English and French retailers. The alternate gave local american citizens entry to new eu applied sciences that have been built-in into Indian lifeways. What emerges from this particular exploration is a narrative of 2 equivalent companions considering a jointly valuable trade.
Drawing on greater than seventy years of alternate files from the data of the Hudson's Bay corporation, financial historians Ann M. Carlos and Frank D. Lewis critique and confront some of the myths quite often held concerning the nature and effect of industrial alternate. widely documented are the ways that natives reworked the buying and selling atmosphere and decided the diversity of products provided to them. Natives have been potent bargainers who demanded useful goods akin to firearms, kettles, and blankets in addition to luxuries like fabric, jewellery, and tobacco—goods just like these bought through Europeans. unusually little alcohol used to be traded. certainly, Commerce via a Frozen Sea exhibits that natives have been industrious those that accomplished a regular of residing above that of so much employees in Europe. even if they later fell in the back of, the eighteenth century was once, for local americans, a golden age.
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Extra resources for Commerce by a Frozen Sea: Native Americans and the European Fur Trade
Life at the Bay The posts built by the company at the mouth of the Moose, Albany, Nelson, and Churchill rivers were crude log structures. We get some idea of just how crude from the various descriptions of those who lived at the posts. ’’25 The posts were heated with wood in large brick stoves, which made the rooms very smoky and dark, especially as the windows were covered with three-inch wooden ................. 17617$ $CH2 02-01-10 14:43:56 PS PAGE 43 44 Chapter 2 shutters. During the winter months, men often journeyed a few miles inland to cut timber; there they slept in temporary shelters.
Game was more plentiful in September. In that month the post received ................. 17617$ $CH2 02-01-10 14:44:20 PS PAGE 47 48 Chapter 2 565 geese, 115 pike and trout, 12 deer, and some deer tongues. The southern migration of geese was over by mid-September, and the men turned their attention to rabbit and partridge. Snares were set on October 3, and on October 4 they caught 57 rabbits. But the area was quickly trapped out. The catch over the following days was 20 rabbits, then 15, 6, and 2.
Source: Hudson’s Bay Company Archives, Fur Sale Books, MG 20 A48/2. a prices per pelt appear relatively stable, fluctuating between 5 shillings and 5 shillings 6 pence. In the 1720s, prices moved sharply higher and remained in the range of 7 to 9 shillings until 1745. In the second half of the 1740s, prices rose again to over 12 shillings per pelt and remained at or above this level to 1763. Over the period from 1713 to 1763 the five-year average price of parchment beaver, which was the dominant form of pelt, rose from 5 shillings in 1713–17 to more than 8 shillings by the 1740s and to between 12 and 14 shillings in the 1750s and 1760s.
Commerce by a Frozen Sea: Native Americans and the European Fur Trade by Ann M. Carlos