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By Oppenheim J.J., Howard O.M.Z., Goetzl E.

This introductory evaluation serves to introduce the reader to a number of households of mobile chemoattractants together with cytokines often called chemokines, as neuropeptides, parts of the supplement cascade, and cyclooxygenase pathways. those ligands proportion the means to make use of seven transmembrane (STM) G protein-coupled receptors. As is right of different cyto-kines, those ligands are multifunctional and, as well as mobilizing inflammatory cells to websites of an infection and damage, act on a large spectrum of progenitor cells and on nonleukocytes. accordingly, a few of these ligands perform fetal improvement, others on hematopoiesis on trafficking and homing of cells to tissues and organs, at the induction of inflammatory and immune responses, and on regulating mobile adhesion and angiogenesis. we'll additionally evaluate studies that a variety of viruses and microorganisms have tailored and realized to bypass those mediators of host safeguard through generating agonists or antagonists or, as illustrated by means of HIV-1, by utilizing chemokine receptors as access websites for mobile invasion.

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Med. 187, 601±608. , Domaille, P. , Handel, T. , and Wlodawer, A. (1997). The structure of MCP-1 in two crystal forms provides a rare example of variable quaternary interactions. Nature Struct. Biol. 4, 64±69. Luger, T. , Charon, J. , and Oppenheim, J. J. (1983). Chemotactic properties of partially purified human epidermal cell-derived thymocyte activating factor CETAF for polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells. J. Immunol. 13, 816±820. Luster, A. , and Leder, P. (1993). IP-10 a C-X-C chemokine, elicits a potent thymus-dependent antitumor response in vitro.

Hedrick, J. , and Zlotnik, A. (1997). Identification and characterization of a novel  chemokine containing six conserved cysteines. J. Immunol. 159, 1589±1593. Hedrick, J. , and Zlotnik, A. (1998). Characterization of a novel CC chemokine, HCC-4, whose expression is increased by interleukin-10. Blood 91, 4242±4247. , and Nomiyama, H. (1997a). A novel human CC chemokine PARC that is most homologous to macrophageinflammatory protein-1 alpha/LD78 alpha and chemotactic for T lymphocytes, but not for monocytes.

Hedrick, Schering Plough Corporation, Keniworth, NJ for providing the dendograms; to Dr Philip Murphy, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD for critical review of this manuscript; and to Ms Cheryl Fogle for outstanding secretarial and managerial assistance. This project has been funded in whole or in part with federal funds from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, under contract no. NO1-CO-56000. The contents of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US Government.

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Chemotactic Factors, Neuropeptides, and Other Ligands for Seven Transmembrane Receptors by Oppenheim J.J., Howard O.M.Z., Goetzl E.

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