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A. Isotherm Classification The classification of the low concentration region of the sample isotherm into linear, concave, and convex isotherms has been discussed (Section 2-4). For adsorption of a compound from the gas phase, Brunauer et al. (30) have described the five basic isotherm types shown in Fig. 3-5. Type I isotherms occur when monolayer adsorption is distinctly favored over multilayer adsorption. After an initial rapid uptake of adsorbate by the adsorbent, the surface monolayer is completed and further adsorption does not occur.

34)]. We are therefore justified in picturing the adsorbent surface as approximately (or effectively) planar in most cases. B. Pore Diameter Effects Chromatographic adsorbents generally possess a microporous structure. These internal pores normally contribute almost all the adsorbent surface area, and adsorption therefore occurs chiefly within these pores. The average pore diameter and the distribution of pore diameters for a given adsorbent can be experimentally determined. Average pore diameter dp is related to adsorbent specific surface area SA and pore volume Vv through the relationship: dp = AVJSA The latter relationship is derivable from the assumption that pores possess a cylindrical geometry.

In this section we will briefly examine how adsorption energy can be affected by certain general aspects of the mutual positions (in three dimensions) of adsorbent sites. ADSORPTION OF POLYATOMIC MOLECULES " -' ^ V f ^ ч 61 ~ ^ * * ¾ ? ¾ * 1, A. , the plane of the adsorbent surface) can af|eft$fie interaction between adsorbate and adsorbent Presumably, this intefSc^on is stronger the more closely matched are the planes of the adsorbate molecule and the underlying adsorbent surface. The surfaces of crystalline solids are presumed to be generally planar, at least on a molecular> level, and even amorphous solids may exhibit near-crystalline (and: therefore planar) surface regions of molecular dimensions.

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Chemistry of Iodine in Reactor Safety (Summary, Conclusions) (csni-r1996-07)


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