By Murray S. Blum
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Extra info for Chemical Defenses of Arthropods
Thus, the millipedes are able to produce and discharge less than 10% of their initial capacity about one week after their cyanogenetic glands had been de pleted. Even after two months, only 20-100 μg of HCN were obtained from the millipedes, and the yield was about the same 2-3 months later. Individuals of Pseudopolydesmus appeared to also recharge their glands slowly (Η. E . , 1967). S. E . Duffey (personal communication, 1974) observed that regeneration of the quinone-rich secretion of the millipede Rhinocricus holomelanus was also very slow.
Th e ketone s an d acetates considerabl y enhanc e th e repellenc y o f formi c aci d agains t ar - 34 1. The Many Faces of Defensive Secretions thropod predators by virtue of their own irritating properties and possibly because they may promote the penetration of the acid through the lipophilic arthropod cuticle. Notwithstanding their presence as minor glandular products, these minor concomitants of formic acid represent important elements in the chemical defensive systems of the larvae. The defensive exudates of four species of cockroaches in the genus Platyzosteria are dominated by 2-methylenebutanal (ethyl acrolein), a compound that constitutes over 90% of the observed volatiles in all se cretions (Waterhouse and Wallbank, 1967).
1973d). bond has been estabglands opening on the lished only for the a l frontal margin of the Coleoptera kene in the tenebrionine prothorax. Tenebrionidae: Gnathocerus discharges. , tenebrionid tribes Litobori ni and Diap i ri η i. , Neobaphion Hymenoptera Formicidae: Camponotus niperda (Berqstrom and Löfqvist, 1971). Coleoptera Staphy1inidae: Drusilla canaliculata (Brand et a l . , 1973b). Hymenoptera Formicidae: Pogonomyrmex ruqosus (Reqnier et a l . , 1973). 57 C | 3 H 25 MW 182 4-Tridecene Staphy1 i η i dae: Adu11 tergal gland situated between the sixth and seventh abdominal tergites.
Chemical Defenses of Arthropods by Murray S. Blum