By Michael A. Lebowitz
A very transformed variation of his vintage quantity, Michael Lebowitz's Beyond Capital explores one of many nice debates between Marx students, that of the results of Marx's uncompleted works. Lebowitz specializes in the facet of the employees, which, he argues, was once no longer built in Marx's Das Kapital and which was once to be the topic of his meant ebook on wage-labor. Beyond Capital criticizes the one-sidedness of a lot of Marxist notion and argues that Marx's political financial system of the operating type and how within which people produce themselves via their struggles are relevant for going past capital.
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Extra resources for Beyond Capital: Marx's Political Economy of the Working Class
Capitalism as infinite? Yet, this is not at all a misreading. It was not accidental that Marx used these terms, distinguishing clearly between barriers, on the one hand, and limits and boundaries, on the other. 8 However, this particular point needs to be stressed here: for 14 Beyond Capital Hegel, for something to be finite, it must be incapable of surpassing a particular barrier. One barrier must, in fact, be its Limit. 9 In contrast to Limit, the concept of Barrier by definition can be negated: ‘by the very fact that something has been determined as barrier, it has already been surpassed’ (Hegel, 1961, I: 146).
And, yet, some critics have argued that this would let Marx off far too easily. The kernel of the problems, they propose, can be traced to Marx himself. ’ Thus, in Gorz’s view, the commitment to the working class for Marx (as for subsequent revolutionaries) is not ‘because the proletariat acts, thinks and feels in a revolutionary way but because it is in itself revolutionary by destination, which is to say: it has to be revolutionary; it must “become what it is” ’ (Gorz, 1982: 20). In short, precisely because the philosophical stance of the Young Marx rather than ‘the facts’ is the original source of this central concept of Marxism, ‘the various theoretical and political positions among marxists can only find legitimation in fidelity to the dogma.
In short, capitalism turns what had been the limits of earlier modes of production into mere barriers to be transcended. Capital drives beyond ‘all traditional, confined, complacent, encrusted satisfactions of present needs, and reproductions of old ways of life’. It constantly revolutionizes these old ways of life, ‘tearing down all the barriers which hem in the development of the forces of production, the expansion of needs, the all-sided development of production, and the exploitation and exchange of natural and mental forces’.
Beyond Capital: Marx's Political Economy of the Working Class by Michael A. Lebowitz