By Roberta Ulrich
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Extra resources for American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006
Carver Jr. put the issue in stark economic terms only a few days before termination went into effect. ” He added, “But there is a basic difﬁculty in translating a single industry operation into all the ramiﬁcations and complexity of community and government activities. Furthermore, we don’t really have any way to make a direct conversion of one sawmill operation, which is customarily carried out as a private proposition, into full support of an American community . . ”16 Congress ignored Carver too.
Instead, the Wisconsin tribe got legislation severing its relationship with the federal government. ”1 The effects were still felt half a century later. There had been warnings. ” However, nothing had been done about that list by either Congress or the Truman administration. 2 The Menominees had long wanted more control of their own activities including the timber and sawmill operations that paid most of the cost of operating the reservation. Before declaring their independence, however, the Indians wanted to invest in improving the business and their reservation’s infrastructure.
The added costs boosted the ﬁgure to $600,000. 52 The faltering lumber market collapsed in 1963, and the mill closed for six weeks for major repairs in 1964. On termination, title to all reservation real estate was transferred to the new corporate entity, Menominee Enterprises Inc. (mei). Home owners were forced to buy the land under their houses from the corporation. For most, the only money they had was their share of the corporate stock, which they had received in the form of income bonds. 53 The next few years were full of anecdotal evidence that termination had created more problems than it solved.
American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006 by Roberta Ulrich