New PDF release: American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration,

By Roberta Ulrich

ISBN-10: 0803233647

ISBN-13: 9780803233645

When the U.S. executive ended its courting with dozens of local American tribes and bands among 1953 and 1966, it used to be accomplishing an incredible social scan. Congress enacted this system, often called termination, within the identify of “freeing” the Indians from govt regulations and enhancing their caliber of lifestyles. despite the fact that, elimination the federal prestige of greater than 9 dozen tribes around the kingdom plunged lots of their approximately 13,000 individuals into deeper degrees of poverty and eroded the tribal people’s experience of local identification. starting in 1973 and lengthening over a twenty-year interval, the terminated tribes, one after the other, persuaded Congress to revive their ties to the government. still, rather a lot harm were performed that even at the present time the restored tribes fight to beat the issues created via these terminations a part century ago.
 
Roberta Ulrich offers a concise review of all of the terminations and restorations of local American tribes from 1953 to 2006 and explores the long-lasting coverage implications for local peoples. this can be the 1st booklet to contemplate all of the terminations and restorations within the 20th century as a part of carrying on with coverage whereas detailing a number of the person tribal modifications. Drawing from Congressional files, interviews with tribal contributors, and different fundamental assets, Ulrich delves into the reasons and results of termination and recovery from either sides.

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Extra resources for American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006

Sample text

Carver Jr. put the issue in stark economic terms only a few days before termination went into effect. ” He added, “But there is a basic difficulty in translating a single industry operation into all the ramifications and complexity of community and government activities. Furthermore, we don’t really have any way to make a direct conversion of one sawmill operation, which is customarily carried out as a private proposition, into full support of an American community . . ”16 Congress ignored Carver too.

Instead, the Wisconsin tribe got legislation severing its relationship with the federal government. ”1 The effects were still felt half a century later. There had been warnings. ” However, nothing had been done about that list by either Congress or the Truman administration. 2 The Menominees had long wanted more control of their own activities including the timber and sawmill operations that paid most of the cost of operating the reservation. Before declaring their independence, however, the Indians wanted to invest in improving the business and their reservation’s infrastructure.

The added costs boosted the figure to $600,000. 52 The faltering lumber market collapsed in 1963, and the mill closed for six weeks for major repairs in 1964. On termination, title to all reservation real estate was transferred to the new corporate entity, Menominee Enterprises Inc. (mei). Home owners were forced to buy the land under their houses from the corporation. For most, the only money they had was their share of the corporate stock, which they had received in the form of income bonds. 53 The next few years were full of anecdotal evidence that termination had created more problems than it solved.

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American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006 by Roberta Ulrich


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