New PDF release: Air War Bosnia. UN and Nato Airpower

By Tim Ripley

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Extra resources for Air War Bosnia. UN and Nato Airpower

Example text

We also add, as described above, the revised value of nonborrowed reserves: minus R1,898 billion, highly negative. 7. The Relationship between the Banking System and the Real Sector. The banking system—a winding maze of borrower ownership of banks, insider lending, rollover of bad loans, misallocation of credit, lack of competitive credit markets, and lack of long-term investment and credit—impeded the development of the new private sector and the restructuring of potentially viable enterprises.

This is, in fact, the reason that banks place book-entry deposits with the central bank: to exchange on demand an illiquid, book-entry value (which represents merely a pledge not to lend this amount to enterprises at this moment) for liquid, hard cash printed by the central bank. This arrangement keeps structurally illiquid Russian banks liquid at any moment in time. This arrangement potentially undermines the monetary base, however, because banks can, on demand, force the CBR to print as much money as they deposit (and they can, if need be, deposit Hoover Press : Rabushka DP2 HPRABU0200 03-01-99 07:20:51 rev2 page 50 50 / Fixing Russia’s Banks the entire stock of broad money, less currency in circulation).

The right-hand side of the table enumerates the liabilities of the banks. The list is self-explanatory. It includes demand deposits, time deposits, foreign currency deposits, Central Bank credit, bank-issued bills of exchange (see the end of chapter 3 for a discussion of bank-issued bills of exchange and why they amount to quasi–Central Bank credit), foreign liabilities, and undistributed liabilities. Total liabilities sum to R275,586 billion. Subtracting liabilities from assets yields positive equity of R66,688 billion, suggesting that the commercial banking system was in good financial shape at the end of 1995.

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Air War Bosnia. UN and Nato Airpower by Tim Ripley

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