A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder - download pdf or read online

By J. R. Partington

ISBN-10: 0801859549

ISBN-13: 9780801859540

For almost six hundred years, from the battles of the early fourteenth century to the shedding of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, firearms derived from gunpowder and different chemical substances outlined the frightful volume of warfare. The gear and fabrics utilized in global struggle i'd were primary to our distant ancestors. during this vintage paintings, first released in 1960, James Riddick Partington presents a global survey of the evolution of incendiary units, Greek fireplace, and gunpowder.Greek fireplace, a composition Partington believes used to be made up of a distilled petroleum fraction and different parts (but no longer saltpetre), was once so much famously utilized in the sieges of Constantinople and the Crusades. Partington strikes from its antecedents—other incendiaries utilized in historical warfare—to ecu gunpowder recipe books ( The Latin booklet of fireplace, Bellifortis, and Feuerwerkbuch) and the background of infernal machines, mines, canon, small fingers, and artillery. His ebook contains chapters on gunpowder and guns in Muslim lands, India, and China—including hearth books, using gunpowder as a propellant, the artillery of the Mughal Emperors, and using saltpetre in explosives. He lines the advance of gunpowder to eleventh-century China and cites the 1st recognized point out and imagine of a firearm in 1326. "The historical past of gunpowder and firearms has attracted many authors with various pursuits. the overall historian needs to take account of significant innovations effecting revolutions within the lifetime of international locations. The historian of technological know-how is worried as a rule with the discovery of gunpowder. The historian of know-how examines the improvement within the manufacture of explosives and guns, and how during which gunpowder has chanced on purposes within the peaceable arts. the army historian bargains regularly with using gunpowder as an explosive and a propellant... and the advance of firearms and their use in battle. No fresh booklet in English (or for that subject in any language) has tried a concise survey of the subject."—from the Preface

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Canard^" (correcting Brooks^"), who says there were really five expeditions: three in the time of the Khalif Mu'-awiya in 665, 668 and 674; one under Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik in 715; and one under al-Mahdi, commanded by his son Harun, in 782. Of these, only two were true sieges, viz. the one under Yazid and Abu Ayyub in 668, and that under Maslama ibn 'Abd al-Malik in 715, when Greek fire was used. The expedition of "seven years" (674-80) confounds sieges and simple raids; Turkish traditions have nine sieges.

Kedrenos (Cedrenus), Compendium Historiarum. Kgl. Konigliche. Konstantinos VII. De Administr. Imp. Konstantinos (Constantinus Porphyrogenitus), De Administrando Imperio. Liebig's Annalen. Annalen der Chemie, ed. J. Liebig. , Mim. Memoirs, M^moires. Mim. Acad. Inscriptions. Memoires de I'Acaddmie des Inscriptions, Paris. Mim. Acad. Imp. des Sciences de St. Pdtersbourg. M6moires de 1'Academic Imperial des Sciences de St. P6tersbourg (Leningrad). Mim. Acad. Sci. Memoires de 1'Academic des Sciences, Paris (to 1798 Royale, and various titles since).

The deiov dTTvpov, which Pliny®' calls "sulphur vivum, quod Graeci dTTvpov vocant," is native sulphur which has not been melted. The d'Aj opvKTos has been supposed by many authors®® to be saltpetre. e. dXs opvKTos, from salt crystallised by the heat of the sun {dXes avTofiaroi) from the water at the mouth of the river Borysthenes, and there is little doubt that the true meaning is rock-salt, which Dioskourides®" said is the more active salt (rtov Se dXwv ivepyearepov fxev eari TO opvKrov). , literally "dust," had many meanings; quicklime, an alkaUne lye filtered through wood-ashes and quicklime (causticised lye), and incense {araKTrj) which had "distilled" from resinous trees®^; it may thus be taken as equivalent to the fj-dwa of the older recipes.

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A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder by J. R. Partington


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