By Robert Bideleux
This welcome moment version of A background of japanese Europe offers a thematic historic survey of the formative strategies of political, social and fiscal swap that have performed paramount roles in shaping the evolution and improvement of the zone. topics coated comprise: japanese Europe in old, medieval and early smooth instances the legacies of Byzantium, the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire the influence of the region's robust Russian and Germanic neighbours rival suggestions of 'Central' and 'Eastern' Europe the adventure and effects of the 2 global Wars different types of fascism in jap Europe the effect of Communism from the Nineteen Forties to the Eighties post-Communist democratization and marketization the eastward expansion of the ecu. A heritage of japanese Europe now contains new chronologies – one for the Balkans and one for East-Central Europe – and a word list of key words and ideas, delivering entire assurance of a posh prior, from antiquity to the current day.
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Extra resources for A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change
England’s Magna Carta, 1215). Poland and Hungary were severely devastated by Mongol armies. The ruler of Krakow promulgated a Charter of Jewish Liberties (the Statute of Kalisz); many of Europe’s Jews later settled in Poland. Rudolf of Habsburg was elected (Germanic) Holy Roman Emperor. Emperor Rudolf established the Habsburgs as the hereditary rulers of the Austrian Crown Lands. Baronial anarchy in Hungary, after extinction of Arpad dynasty. Hungary was ruled by the Anjou dynasty, which benefited from surges in gold and silver mining and new trade links with Germany, the Baltic and the Balkans.
During 2006 the booming Estonia and Lithuania came very close to meeting the ‘convergence criteria’ for entry into the ‘eurozone’, but were refused entry because their inflation rates slightly exceeded the permitted levels. Slovakia was aiming to qualify for entry into the eurozone in 2009, and in 2007 Estonia chose 2011 as its new target date for entry. However, ‘eurosceptical’ governments in Poland and the Czech Republic were clearly in no hurry to adopt the euro, while Latvia (which had 6 per cent inflation rate in 2006) and deficit-stricken Hungary would find it very difficult to meet the euro-zone ‘convergence criteria’ before 2012 at the earliest.
Austrian premier Karl Stürgh assassinated by Friedrich Adler. Emperor Franz Josef died; succeeded by Karl VI. USA sided with the Entente, but HE defeated Italian forces at Caporetto (October) and the Bolshevik Revolution relieved pressure on Central Powers (November–December). Proclamation of Woodrow Wilson’s ‘14 Points’ (January). Russia promised Poland independence (30 March). Surrenders of Bulgaria (September) and OE (October) accelerated collapse and disintegration of HE (October) and surrender of Central Powers (November).
A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change by Robert Bideleux